Learning from Earthquakes: Napa to Nepal
Room: Cyril Magnin II and III room
Presenter: Marko Schotanus
Affiliation: Rutherford + Chekene
Author bio: Marko is a structural engineer at Rutherford + Chekene in San Francisco. His experience includes advanced structural analysis, seismic evaluation and retrofit of existing buildings, seismic peer review, and new building design. Marko is a past chair and active participant in both SEAOC and SEAONC Existing Building Committees and subcommittees where he has participated in the development of various commentaries, standards and codes for the evaluation and retrofit of existing buildings. He was actively involved in reconnaissance following the 2014 South Napa Earthquake, the 2011 Christchurch Earthquake in New Zealand, the 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake in Italy, and is a Cal EMA certified Safety Assessment Program trainer. Marko served as the EERI Reconnaissance Team Leader for the South Napa Earthquake.
Presenter: David Lallemant
Affiliation: Stanford University
Author bio: David Lallemant completed his PhD from Stanford University in 2015. His research focuses on understanding and quantifying the evolution of extreme risk in today's growing cities. He uses hazard modeling, engineering analysis, urban analytics, predictive modeling and spatial statistics for application in large-scale natural disaster risk analysis. The transdisciplinary and policy-oriented nature of his work has led him to build collaborations with the World Bank, Google, the Red Cross, the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery and others. He holds a master's degree from UC Berkeley (2010) and bachelor's degree from MIT (2007). David is also active in post-disaster response and recovery, which forms the basis for his research on post-disaster assessment and community resilience. He worked for two years in Haiti following the 2010 earthquake and has been involved with the response and recovery following the 2015 earthquake in Nepal.
Presenter: Surya Shrestha
Author bio: Mr. Surya Narayan Shrestha has a masters in Structural Engineering from the Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University and receiving a PhD from Tribhuvan University in Nepal with research in University of Basilicata in Italy. Mr. Shrestha works as Deputy Executive Director of National Society for Earthquake Technology (NSET), Nepal. As a structural engineer and risk reduction specialist Mr. Shrestha has worked as a team leader of several programs implemented by NSET. Mr. Shrestha has more than 15 years experience in Earthquake Risk Reduction in Nepal and the region. As a Deputy Executive Director, his major responsibilities are to provide regular guidance and monitor senior professionals of NSET for the implementation of its activities and operations of NSET.
Presenter: Maryann Phipps
Author bio: Maryann is a practicing Structural Engineer with over 30 years experience evaluating, designing and renovating facilities to remain operational after earthquakes. Hands-on experience designing hospitals, schools and laboratories for post-earthquake functionality has helped make Maryann a recognized expert in the seismic protection of nonstructural components. She was the lead technical consultant for FEMA P-74 Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage, and she is currently leading ATC-120, a NIST-sponsored project entitled Seismic Analysis and Design of Nonstructural Components and Systems, intended to advance the state of practice in this field. She was co-technical lead for FEMA P-1024, Performance of Buildings and Nonstructural Components in the 2014 South Napa Earthquake. Maryann is President of Estructure, a San Francisco Bay Area structural engineering firm, and a Past President and Fellow of the Structural Engineers Association of California.
Presenter: Charles Huyck
Author bio: As a founding partner of ImageCat, Mr. Huyck develops the operational strategies for spatial technologies. He directs a team of engineers, scientists, and programmers developing software tools and data processing algorithms for loss estimation and risk assessment. He has over 20 years of experience integrating advanced geospatial technologies into CAT modeling programs. Recent interests include business interruption, heuristics for data cleaning, and crowd-sourced damage detection using remotely-sensed data.
Earthquakes and Social Justice: Protecting Vulnerable Populations in the U.S.
Room: Cyril Magnin II and III room
Presenter: David Friedman
Author bio: David is a Senior Principal, and emeritus President, CEO and Board Chair of Forell/Elsesser Engineers Inc., with over 40 years of professional practice (35 years at F/E!) in structural and earthquake engineering. His strength, gained over the breadth and depth of his career, is a holistic perspective of a projects’ planning, design and construction and the collaborative integration of creative structural solutions with architects, engineers and builders. With a specialty in seismic engineering and retrofitting of existing structures, particularly those with historic designation, David has solved numerous structural and earthquake engineering challenges during his career with Forell/Elsesser Engineers. Principal examples of his projects include the base isolation retrofits of San Francisco City Hall and the Asian Art Museum, the adaptive reuse and retrofit for the San Francisco Conservatory of Music, and the seismic safety corrections and remodeling of UC Berkeley’s California Memorial Stadium. David is devoted to world-wide seismic risk reduction and is a former director of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, and a current director of Build Change. He is also deeply involved in many other civic, philanthropic and not-for-profit Boards including The San Francisco Foundation, SPUR, UC Berkeley Foundation, Jewish Senior Living Group, Faultline Foundation and the United States Resiliency Council (USRC).
Presenter: Kathleen Tierney
Affiliation: National Hazards Center
Author bio: Kathleen Tierney is a professor in the Department of Sociology and the Institute of Behavioral Science and director of the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado Boulder. Kathleen's research focuses on the societal dimensions of hazards, disasters, and risk, and her current research interests include the political economy of disasters and hazard risk reduction, community resilience, and post-disaster business and economic resilience. She is a former distinguished lecturer, board member, and vice president of EERI. Kathleen most recent book, The Social Roots of Risk: Producing Disasters, Promoting Resilience, was published in June 2014 by Stanford University Press.
Presenter: Rebekah Paci-Green
Affiliation: Western Washington University
Author bio: Dr. Rebekah Paci-Green is an assistant professor of Environmental Studies at Western Washington University where she teaches courses in natural hazards planning and disaster risk reduction. She is also Director of the Resilience Institute, where she oversees projects aimed at reducing disasters and enhancing community resilience. She has worked with countries across Asia to ensure school safety and worked with communities in the United States to reduce vulnerability and recover from disasters.
Issues at the Intersection of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering
Room: Cyril Magnin II room
Presenter: Sjoerd van Ballogooy
Affiliation: Tonkin + Taylor Ltd.
Author bio: Sjoerd van Ballegooy is a senior geotechnical engineer and technical director at Tonkin + Taylor Ltd, a specialist geotechnical consultancy company in New Zealand. He received his undergraduate and graduate degrees from the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Since September 2010, Sjoerd has been involved in leading the geotechnical response to the damage caused by the 2010 - 2016 Canterbury earthquake sequence and in 2013 received the Queen's Service Order, Honorary Companion for his services to geotechnical science. His main roles involved overseeing the mapping of the land damage and building damage and the ground surface subsidence, helping the New Zealand Government in evaluate which land would be suitable for rebuilding and the New Zealand Earthquake Commission understand its land liabilities and identify which land is vulnerable to liquefaction and where the vulnerability has increased as a result of the physical changes caused by the earthquake sequence. Sjoerd has also architected the online geotechnical database system to manage, gather and disseminate the land damage data and geotechnical investigation data to the wider engineering community as well as lead a large ground improvement trial programme to evaluate the effectiveness of different ground improvement methods to enable the residential areas of Christchurch to be rebuilt with greater resilience to future damage using affordable solutions.
Abstract: The 2010-2016 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) affected the Canterbury region of New Zealand resulting in widespread ground surface deformation, mainly due to liquefaction ejecta, liquefaction related volumetric densification of soils, topographic relevelling and lateral spreading, causing extensive land, infrastructure and building damage. The liquefaction affected 51,000 residential properties and damaged approximately 15,000 residential houses beyond economic repair. The total economic losses from the CES were in the order of $40B, with approximately one third of the economic losses being directly attributable to liquefaction. This presentation will examine the lessons learnt from the liquefaction damage and present a case study for a consideration of how we build our residential houses to be affordable, resilient and more readily repairable, by better matching building typology to the natural hazards that have the potential to occur. Five years on from the CES, the repair and rebuild residential houses damaged by the 2010-2011 earthquakes was substantially underway. New houses have been rebuilt either on shallow ground improvements or more robust foundation systems. On 14 February 2016 a MW 5.7 earthquake occurred in Christchurch, once again triggering liquefaction in the eastern suburbs. Preliminary observations of the effects of liquefaction on the new residential house portfolio are presented including comparisons of how the houses on shallow ground improvements and more robust foundation systems performed relative to the houses constructed prior to the CES. This aftershock event provides an excellent case study to evaluate the benefits of improving building resiliency.
Presenter: Youssef Hashash
Affiliation: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Author bio: Youssef Hashash, Ph.D., P.E is the William J. and Elaine F. Hall professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He received his undergraduate and graduate degrees from MIT after which he worked in Dallas, Texas and San Francisco, California on a number of underground construction projects in the U.S. and Canada. Youssef joined the faculty of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1998. He taught courses in Geotechnical Engineering, Numerical Modeling in Geomechanics, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Tunneling in Soil and Rock, and Excavation Support Systems. His research focus includes deep excavations in urban areas, earthquake engineering, continuum and discrete element modeling and soil-structure interaction. He also works on geotechnical engineering applications of visualization, augmented reality, imaging and drone technologies. He has published over 200 articles and is co-inventor on four patents. His research group developed the software program DEEPSOIL that is used worldwide for evaluation of soil response to earthquake shaking.
Abstract: Underground structures are a key component of sustainable cities. In dense urban environments, underground structures are often built near tall buildings. Although such buildings have the potential to alter ground motions in their vicinity and transmit significant forces to adjacent underground structures during earthquakes, these impacts are not well understood. This presentation will describe a research program that includes centrifuge experiments and numerical analyses aimed at understanding the seismic performance of a braced excavation and a permanent box structure buried in medium dense, dry sand. The response of these underground structures is first studied in isolation, then, a model midrise and a high-rise building are added near the underground structures to evaluate their influence. Preliminary experimental results indicate that the presence of an adjacent high-rise building slightly reduces racking displacements on the buried structure, but increases seismic lateral earth pressures on the building side of the buried structure and the response can be captured using three-dimensional models. This enhanced understanding of the interaction of these structures is important to improving the resiliency of our urban infrastructure.
Presenter: Ellen Rathje
Affiliation: University of Texas at Austin
Author bio: Dr. Ellen M. Rathje is the Warren S. Bellows Centennial Professor in the Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin. She has expertise in the areas of seismic site response analysis, seismic slope stability, field reconnaissance after earthquakes, and remote sensing of geotechnical phenomena. She has published over 150 papers on these topics and has supervised the research of over 30 graduate students. Dr. Rathje is a founding member and current Co-Chair of the Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association and she was a member of the Board of Directors of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) from 2010-2013. She is the Principal Investigator for the DesignSafe-ci.org cyberinfrastructure for the NSF-funded Natural Hazards Engineering Research Infrastructure (NHERI). She has been honored with various research awards, including the Huber Research Prize from the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) in 2010, the Hogentogler Award for outstanding paper from ASTM Committee D18 in 2010, the Shamsher Prakash Research Award in 2007, and the Shah Innovation Prize from EERI in 2006.
Abstract: One dimensional site response analysis is one of the most commonly used numerical techniques in geotechnical earthquake engineering. Borehole arrays, where earthquake recordings are made at depth as well as the ground surface, provide invaluable data that can be used to assess the numerical techniques used for site response analysis. Borehole array recordings in the US and Japan are used to evaluate equivalent linear (EQL) analysis, equivalent linear analysis with frequency-dependent soil properties (EQL-FD), and fully nonlinear analysis (NL). The required damping to fit the small-strain response is shown to be larger than predicted by typical material damping curves derived from laboratory tests. At peak shear strains less than about 0.1%, all three site response techniques accurately predict site amplification relative to the borehole arrays. At peak shear strains larger than 0.1% and at periods less than about 0.4 s, EQL and NL analyses under-predict site amplification and EQL-FD analyses over-predict site amplification. Consideration of the shear strength of the soil when specifying the modulus reduction curve only slightly improves these comparisons. Additional research is needed to develop appropriate techniques to model large strain site response at periods less than 0.4 s.
Presenter: Jonathan D. Bray
Affiliation: UC Berkeley
Author bio: Jonathan Bray is the Faculty Chair in Earthquake Engineering Excellence at the University of California, Berkeley. He earned engineering degrees from West Point, Stanford, and Berkeley. Dr. Bray is a registered professional civil engineer and has served as a consultant on several important engineering projects and peer review panels. He has authored more than 300 research publications on topics that include liquefaction and its effects on structures, seismic performance of earth structures, earthquake ground motions, and earthquake fault rupture propagation. He leads the Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association. Dr. Bray is a member of the US National Academy of Engineering and has received several honors, including the Peck Award, Joyner Lecture, Huber Research Prize, Packard Foundation Fellowship, and NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award.
Abstract: Several multi-story office buildings settled differentially and were damaged as a result of soil liquefaction during the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. The state-of-the practice still largely involves estimating building settlement using empirical procedures developed to calculate post-liquefaction, one-dimensional, consolidation settlement in the free-field away from buildings. Performance-based earthquake engineering requires improved procedures, because these free-field analyses cannot possibly capture shear-induced deformations in the soil beneath shallow foundations. Well-documented field case histories of office building performance in the Central Business District of Christchurch provide excellent benchmarks. Differential settlement of shallow-founded structures is often governed by liquefaction of shallow soils and the loss of ground due to the development of sediment ejecta. Shear strains due to shaking-induced ratcheting of buildings into cyclically softened soil are important effects that are not captured in current procedures. Dynamic SSI analysis can be used to evaluate building performance. Recommendations for estimating liquefaction-induced movements of buildings with shallow foundations are made.
Metrics and Models for Measuring Resilience
Room: Cyril Magnin III room
Presenter: Laurie A. Johnson
Affiliation: Laurie A. Johnson Consulting | Research
Author bio: Laurie Johnson is an urban planner specializing in disaster recovery and catastrophe risk management. She has been active in research and consulting on recovery planning and management following many of the world's major urban disasters, including the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes, the Kobe and Tohoku Japan earthquakes, Hurricane Katrina, and Canterbury New Zealand earthquake sequence. She is a member of U.S. Geological Survey's Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) team focusing on long-term recovery and policy issues arising from the HayWired scenario of a M7.05 earthquake striking on the San Francisco Bay Area's Hayward fault in April 2018. Dr. Johnson is also a visiting project scientist at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) at the University of California-Berkeley, chairs the U.S. National Advisory Committee for Earthquake Hazards Reduction, and serves on the steering committee of GEER - the Geotechnical Extreme Event Reconnaissance organization and the board of directors of SPUR -the San Francisco Bay Area's civic and good governance organization. She is a long-standing member of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, American Institute of Certified Planners, and American Planning Association. She holds a Doctor of Informatics degree from Kyoto University, Japan and a Master of Urban Planning and Bachelor of Science in Geophysics, both from Texas A&M University.
Abstract: A major challenge that communities face in assessing and measuring resilience involves interdependent lifeline systems. Currently lifeline system performance standards and goals are governed by a myriad of codes, standards, and guidelines for the design, construction and operation of individual systems and system components. Recently the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) has sponsored two projects to help address this problem. The first, Earthquake-Resilient Lifelines: NEHRP Research, Development and Implementation Roadmap (NIST GCR 14-917-33) (NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture 2014), developed a four-point program with 28 priority research, development and implementation topics to guide investments by NIST and other federal agencies in generating national performance goals for six key lifeline systems (e.g., electric power, gas and liquid fuel, water, wastewater, telecommunications and transportation) in concert with the development of needed codes, standards, guidelines, and manuals for key systems and components, and a coherent and well-coordinated plan to promote their voluntary adoption by communities and lifeline providers. The second, being conducted by the Applied Technology Council, is implementing one of the priority recommendations in the NIST Earthquake-Resilient Lifelines roadmap, to assess societal expectations of acceptable lifeline performance levels and restoration times with an expansion to consider seismic (including tsunami) as well as wind, flood, snow/ice and wildfire hazards. Ultimately, this project seeks to provide a technical foundation for first-generation systems-based models that will analyze community resilience and account for interdependencies among infrastructure systems and the social systems that they support. Conceptual thinking about resilience measurement also needs to consider the moment of resilience and whether resilience actions and interventions occur before or after the disaster onset. Frameworks like the Rockefeller Foundation and Arup, Community Resilience Framework (2014), the NIST Community Resilience Planning Guide for Building and Infrastructure Systems (2015), and the SPUR "Target States of Recovery for San Francisco Buildings and Infrastructure" (2009) have been primarily designed for and used in pre-disaster resilience planning, helping communities to craft a resilience vision and then to identify and prioritize actions or interventions leading to resilience ahead of disaster. By their very nature, disasters cause a simultaneous loss of capital across multiple societal systems putting them in a hyper-interdependent state. To be useful, post-disaster resilience measurements have to be conducted systematically and sustained over time in order to understand the recovery and resilience trajectories of different societal systems and the interdependencies among systems. The Canterbury Wellbeing Index and the Canterbury Wellbeing Survey, designed and implemented by New Zealand's national government in the aftermath of the 2010-2011 earthquake sequence, offer useful insights into the conduct of post-disaster, community-scale, resilience assessments and their potential value in recovery and resilience policy design and implementation.
Presenter: Alan Kwok
Affiliation: Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand
Author bio: Alan Kwok is currently conducting his doctoral research on social resilience measurements at the Joint Centre for Disaster Research at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand. His research focuses on the social factors that influence neighborhood resilience in Wellington and San Francisco and how local communities can assess and cultivate pre-disaster social resilience. Prior to his research, Alan was manager of American Red Cross' Ready Neighborhoods, an innovative four-year initiative designed to increase community disaster resilience by building community preparedness and response capacities in 50 targeted neighborhoods throughout the San Francisco Bay Area Region. The initiative was awarded with the Federal Emergency Management Agency's 2012 Community Preparedness Award.
Abstract: As local communities begin to translate national and sub-national disaster resilience policies into practice, there is a growing need for governments and local stakeholder groups to identify resilience gaps and evaluate progress and investment strategies. Much of the existing research on resilience measurements assesses factors pertaining to a spectrum of societal domains, which includes social, economic, institutional, infrastructural, and natural environments. More recently, there is an increasing recognition on the importance of social resilience – the ability of groups or communities to cope with external disturbances – and how it contributes to community preparedness, disaster response and post-disaster recovery. However, despite a focus on social resilience by researchers and practitioners, there are tremendous variations in how social resilience is assessed. This presentation seeks to address the existing tools that measure social resilience, as well as the opportunities and challenges in evaluating programs that build resilience of the social environment at a community level. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of existing research and government efforts that assess community resilience in New Zealand. It reviews the Canterbury Wellbeing Survey that tracks recovery of post-earthquake Christchurch, resilience measurements in Auckland, as well as current tools that evaluate socioeconomic vulnerabilities and progress nationally. The second part of the presentation dives into how social resilience is defined and the key attributes that make communities socially resilient. It reports on the findings from a workshop that was conducted in late 2015 with academic researchers, emergency management practitioners from both public and private sectors, and policymakers from the government in the Wellington region. Although there are many facets to social resilience, a proposed core set of indicators is presented that serves as a foundation for understanding and measuring pre-disaster levels of social resilience of communities. The last part of the presentation bridges research and practice to identify ways forward. It discusses past and current efforts in New Zealand that increase social resilience of communities. It also highlights opportunities and challenges in developing metrics for assessing community resilience programs and tracking social resilience of people and communities.
Presenter: Michael Mieler
Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University/University of CA, Berkeley
Author bio: Dr. Mieler is a Research Scientist with joint appointment at Johns Hopkins University and the University of California, Berkeley. His research focuses on characterizing the response of complex societal infrastructure systems to disturbances and stresses, including the development of novel tools and applications for communicating risk to decision makers, infrastructure operators, and other stakeholder groups. Currently, he is involved in a multi-institutional effort to develop an integrated model of a regional health care network to better understand the impact of natural hazards on the availability of critical health services following adverse events. Previously, he was a visiting researcher at GNS Science in New Zealand where he contributed to a diverse set of projects, including development of a web-based application for predicting seismic damage in near real time for the national rail operator and also a methodology for establishing a consistent hierarchy of performance objectives for a building and its myriad components. Dr. Mieler received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in Civil and Environmental Engineering.
Abstract: The built environment, which includes buildings, lifeline systems, and other engineered structures, plays a vital role in the normal functioning of a community, both in day-to-day operations and in the aftermath of a major disaster. As recent earthquakes in Chile, New Zealand, and Japan have demonstrated, damage to the built environment can generate enormous societal impact, ranging from displacement of individual families and businesses to disruption of entire economic sectors and community services. Consequently, a significant component in the effort to mitigate these cascading impacts involves developing new frameworks, methodologies, and tools for assessing the resilience of the built environment at multiple scales, ranging from individual facilities (e.g., a hospital) to networks of buildings and lifeline systems that support critical community services (e.g., a regional healthcare network). This presentation describes several new frameworks, methodologies, and tools for assessing the resilience of the built environment at different scales. First, it discusses recent advances in quantifying the resilience of individual facilities. These new tools and models, which build upon traditional structural analysis methods for estimating forces and displacements, aim to predict damage and evaluate its impact on functionality, downtime, and the services the facility provides (e.g., emergency surgery at a hospital). These models account for not only structural and nonstructural damage, but also the availability of important utilities, supply chains, and personnel. Next, the presentation describes efforts to measure the resilience of networks of buildings and lifeline systems. These network models integrate components from various modeling domains to predict how failures and outages throughout the built environment impact a particular network’s ability to support an important community service (e.g., healthcare). Last, the presentation describes an ongoing initiative of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) to develop resilience-based performance standards for the buildings and lifeline systems. The intent of these new standards is to connect resilience metrics and objectives across multiple scales of the built environment, thereby ensuring that individual buildings and lifeline systems are designed to perform in a manner that is compatible with community-level resilience goals.
Moving from ideas to action: public policy for earthquake resilien
Room: Cyril Magnin III room
Presenter: Sharyl J. M. Rabinovici
Author bio: Sharyl Rabinovici received her Ph.D. in Public Policy from UC Berkeley with an emphasis on risk communication, disaster mitigation decision-making and behavior, and effective design and implementation of local mitigation programs. In 2014, she founded an independent consulting practice and has since completed survey and interview research, organizational strategy, and stakeholder engagement projects for a variety of entities involved in community resilience, including the California Earthquake Authority, the City of Palo Alto, and the Applied Technology Council. She was recently appointed as a Visiting Scholar at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center at Berkeley, currently serves on the Board of the US Resiliency Council, and is President-Elect for EERI's Northern California Chapter. Her background also includes two years as Visiting Assistant Professor of Public Policy at Mills College and five years with the US Geological Survey.
Presenter: Arrietta Chakos
Affiliation: Urban Resilience Strategies
Author bio: Arrietta Chakos is a public policy advisor on urban resilience, working on community resilience strategies and multi-sectoral engagement. Her work as an advisor with the Association of Bay Area Governments focuses on resilience planning the S.F. Bay Area, emphasizing development of common resilience policies and implementation measures. The initiative, sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the 100 Resilient Cities Initiative launched by the Rockefeller Foundation, engages communities to accelerate resilience action. Ms. Chakos is a member of the Resilience Roundtable and the Committee to Advise the U.S. Global Change Research Program at the National Academy of Sciences; she chairs the Housner Fellow committee at the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Ms. Chakos served as research director at the Harvard Kennedy School's Acting in Time Advance Recovery Project. She worked extensively in local government directing innovative risk mitigation initiatives, intergovernmental coordination, and multi-institutional negotiations at the City of Berkeley, California.
Presenter: David Cocke
Affiliation: Structural Focus
Author bio: David Cocke, S.E., F. SEI, F. ASCE, founded Structural Focus in Los Angeles in 2001 after 20 years at a previous firm in California. He is a registered structural engineer in a dozen states and has an expertise in seismic evaluation, historic preservation, retrofit design and new structural design. Some of David’s more notable projects include the Annenberg Performing Arts Center in Beverly Hills, the Google Los Angeles headquarters, Red Bull North America headquarters, the Wilshire Boulevard Temple restoration in Los Angeles, multiple buildings at Dreamworks, Warner Bros. and Sony Pictures, and many others. David currently serves on the EERI Board of Directors, the SEI Board of Governors and has served on numerous Boards for the Structural Engineers Association in California, and on the Board of numerous preservation organizations. He is also the Managing Director of SAFEq Institute, an expert resource for building owners, risk managers, engineers, and local jurisdictions seeking to minimize facility and business interruption losses caused by disasters by establishing a program for first response post-disaster inspections.
Presenter: Laura Samant
Author bio: Laura Samant helps communities to understand and reduce their risk from earthquakes. She has worked with communities worldwide—from San Francisco, California to Kathmandu, Nepal —currently as an independent consultant. Her key interest is translating state-of-the-art technical knowledge about disaster risk reduction into feasible and effective policies and programs that make cities safer. Recent accomplishments include serving as a co-project manager for the City of San Francisco’s influential Community Action Plan for Seismic Safety program, which led to the City’s soft story retrofit ordinance and the development of its Earthquake Safety Implementation Program, and chairing San Francisco’s Private School Earthquake Safety Working Group, which led to mandatory seismic evaluations of private school buildings in the City. Laura Samant serves on the board of GeoHazards International, a non-profit focused on reducing natural disaster risk in developing countries before disasters strike, and as the Chair of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute’s Public Policy and Advocacy Committee.
Presenter: Yumei Wang
Author bio: Yumei Wang is a civil/geohazards engineer at the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI). She has since 1994 focused on building resilience to natural hazards. She currently serves on the National Academies liquefaction committee, has been an advisor to the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), to the 2013 FEMA-funded tsunami methodology development project and to the 2013 Oregon Resilience Plan, and has taken part in post-earthquake damage assessments including the 2011 Tohoku, Japan and 2010 Maule, Chile disasters. Wang has been a guest on PBS NewsHour, been interviewed by The New York Times, and appeared in documentaries produced by NOVA, National Geographic, and Discovery. Wang served as a Congressional Fellow in the U.S. Senate in Washington DC, and worked as a geotechnical consultant in California, including on the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. She is on the Board of the Cascadia Region Earthquake Workgroup and is currently working for the Chief Financial Office at Department of Administrative Services (DAS CFO) on building resilience from the impacts of natural disasters.
Lifelines - Approaches to Mitigation
Room: Cyril Magnin II room
Presenter: Thomas O'Rourke
Affiliation: Cornell University
Author bio: Tom O’Rourke is the Thomas R. Briggs Professor of Engineering in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell University. He is a member of the US National Academy of Engineering, Distinguished Member of ASCE, International Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He received a number of distinctions for his research and teaching, including from ASCE the Stephen D. Bechtel Pipeline Engineering, Ralph B. Peck, and Charles Martin Duke Lifeline Earthquake Engineering Awards, as well as the Le Val Lund Award for Practicing Lifeline Risk Reduction. He gave the 2016 Terzaghi Lecture and is receiving the George W. Housner Medal from EERI at the 2016 Annual Meeting. He served as President of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) and as the chair or member of many professional society committees. He authored or co-authored over 370 technical publications. His research interests cover geotechnical engineering, earthquake engineering, underground construction technologies, engineering for large, geographically distributed systems, and geographic information technologies and database management. He has served on numerous government advisory boards, as well as the consulting boards or peer reviews for many projects associated with highway, rapid transit, water supply, and energy distribution systems.
Abstract: Lifelines are often grouped into six principal systems, including electric power, gas and liquid fuels, telecommunications, transportation, water, and wastewater systems. They are intricately linked with the economic well-being, security, and social fabric of the communities they serve, and may be regarded as the complex of delivery systems that define modern society and the communities within it. Professor O'Rourke will focus on lifelines as geographically distributed systems subject to various hazards, variations in hazard, and variable and uncertain conditions of repair and proximity to other lifelines. He will address approaches to mitigation by summarizing key lessons learned about lifelines during extreme events, including earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and accidents. He will identify common features of lifeline systems that affect their performance under multi-hazard conditions, and will provide examples of critical dependencies and interdependencies among lifelines. Finally, he will propose a strategy to mitigate earthquake and other hazards that takes into consideration of the age and declining functionality of our infrastructure, institutional constraints that influence its management, and the local and global impacts that affect community resilience.
Los Angeles Water System Seismic Resilience Program
Author bio: Craig A. Davis, Ph.D., PE, GE is the Water System Resilience Program Manager and the Seismic Manager for the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Water System. Formerly he held the positions of Geotechnical Engineering and Trunk Line Design Manager and oversaw nearly a billion dollars in the dam and reservoir development, large diameter pipeline installations, and Water System seismic improvement programs. Dr. Davis is currently developing a comprehensive LA Water System seismic resilience and sustainability program. He is a California licensed Civil and Geotechnical Engineer and received a B.S. in Civil Engineering from the California Polytechnic State University in San Louis Obispo, CA, an M.S. in Civil Engineering with emphasis in structural earthquake engineering from the University of Southern California in 1991, and a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering with emphasis in geotechnical earthquake engineering from the University of Southern California in 2000. He has worked for the LADWP since 1987 where he has investigated and evaluated numerous dams, managed several multimillion dollar projects, and implemented unique and innovative designs. Dr. Davis is appointed to the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Advisory Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction (ACEHR). He is the founding Executive Committee chairperson for the ASCE Infrastructure Resilience Division. Dr. Davis participates in many other national and international professional committees involved in geotechnical engineering and lifeline system resilience and is the founding vice president of the International Society of Lifeline and Infrastructure Earthquake Engineering. Dr. Davis has also organized and coordinated numerous international workshops and symposiums on geotechnical engineering and lifeline system resilience.
Abstract: The Los Angeles Water System is implementing a Seismic Resilience Program as part of a larger plan to improve the City's seismic resilience as outlined in the Resilience by Design report released by the Mayor December 8, 2014. The Water System Seismic Resilience Program comprehensively integrates into all aspects of water system business. The purpose is to continually improve the Water System seismic resilience in a manner that ensures its seismic sustainability and improves the resilience and sustainability of Los Angeles. Water System resilience is critical for providing the water delivery, quality, quantity, fire protection, and functionality service categories, all necessary for supporting community resilience. The goal of a resilient Water System is to limit the total number of service losses and restore the water service categories as rapidly as possible while protecting property, life safety, and the regional social and economic stability. This presentation reviews the Los Angeles Water System resiliency then provides brief descriptions of recommendations and potential tasks which may be implemented to accomplish the recommendations. Key aspects presented include: (1) Methods for improving the reliability of the Los Angeles aqueduct crossing of the San Andreas fault (SAF) and ability to provide water following a SAF earthquake; (2) the formation of a Seismic Resilient Water Supply Task Force consisting of three major water supply agencies for Southern California, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, and the California Department of Water Resources. The Task Force was created in 2015 to identify impacts of a seismic event which may impair imported water supply aqueducts, and to address the identified impacts with a regional approach; (3) Developing a Seismic Resilient Pipe Network; (4) Addressing the fire following earthquake risks in Los Angeles; and (5) creating a Resilient Expert Panel to provide independent expert input for the Los Angeles Water System Resilience Program.
Author bio: Tom Shantz is a senior research engineer for Caltrans, Division of Research, Innovation, and System Information. Tom’s primary focus is seismic hazard and geotechnical engineering. He manages Caltrans’ participation in the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center-Lifelines Program and works to implement their research in Caltrans.
Abstract: Caltrans began addressing seismic deficiencies in our bridges following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. While initially limited to installation of cable restrainers, the retrofit program rapidly expanded its scope following the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake and 20 years of intensive retrofitting followed. Non-toll bridges were retrofitted to meet a non-collapse performance goal while toll bridges were retrofitted to meet higher, bridge specific, performance goals. In all, roughly 2200 State owned bridges, 1250 locally owned bridges, and 7 major toll bridges were retrofitted or replaced. Last year, Caltrans initiated an effort to reassess State bridges for seismic vulnerability since the bulk of seismic retrofits occurred about 20 years ago. Since that time ground motion models have improved and previously unknown faults have been identified. Caltrans design practice has evolved as well, including the adoption of probabilistic procedures that increase design seismic loads near active faults. Also, for the first time, State bridges are being screened for liquefaction hazard and potential fault offset. On the research front bridge fragility has been the focus of several recent or on-going studies. Mechanistic based fragility models for new bridges have been developed and are now being cautiously applied. More challenging is the development of fragility models for existing bridges since these bridges reflect an extraordinary diversity of geometries, structural systems, age of construction and design standard. An on-going research study is addressing this complexity through the development of a detailed classification system based on bridge attributes found to have a large impact on fragility. Fragility models will be developed based on this classification system. Looking to the future, Caltrans recognizes that the single bridge focus of current fragility efforts must be extended to a more comprehensive assessment of a highway corridor. Corridor fragilities must include consideration of multiple bridges and the roadway itself. Operational performance characterization will involve a complex interaction of individual bridge performance, roadway performance, and potential reuse of arterials. As corridor performance estimates develop, prioritization decisions will be at the forefront. These decisions will be challenging as the needs of numerous stakeholders are considered. Scenario planning exercises should help to identify issues, facilitate discussion, and build consensus.
Presenter: Dan Wade
Author bio: Daniel L. Wade, P.E., G.E., is the Director of SFPUC's $4.8 billion Water System Improvement Program (WSIP). At over 90 percent complete, the WSIP is one of the largest water infrastructure programs in the country, and will enable the SFPUC to provide reliable, affordable, high quality water in an environmentally sustainable manner to its 26 wholesale customers located throughout the Bay Area and to retail customers in San Francisco. The WSIP includes 83 water infrastructure projects, including the construction of a new dam, three tunnels, an ultraviolet treatment facility and large-diameter pipelines, as well as the rehabilitation and upgrades of existing storage, treatment and transmission facilities. The WSIP has received extensive industry awards and recognition, and Mr. Wade was recently named one of the 25 Top Newsmakers by Engineering News Record (ENR) magazine. Mr. Wade earned his B.S. Degree in Civil Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley, and his M.S. Degree in Civil/Geotechnical Engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Prior to joining the SFPUC in 2007, he worked as a consultant for 18 years in the water infrastructure industry as Principal Engineer and Vice President with MWH Americas.
Abstract: Program Director Dan Wade will provide an inside look at the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's (SFPUC) Water System Improvement Program (WSIP), a $4.8 billion program to repair, replace and upgrade critical portions of the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System that serves more than 2.6 million customers in the Bay Area. In late 2002, voters approved a bond measure to allow the SFPUC to embark on this multi-year capital improvement program to upgrade its potable water system for purposes of improving seismic and delivery reliability, as well as meeting water quality requirements and long-term water supply goals. At over 90 percent completion, the WSIP is the largest infrastructure program ever undertaken by the City and the County of San Francisco and one of the largest water infrastructure programs in the nation. Mr. Wade will present background information on the WSIP, including the need for the program, criteria used to establish level of service (LOS) goals, prioritization of projects, challenges, and risks as well as the current status of the program. The program includes 83 projects spread across seven counties from California's Sierra foothills to San Francisco, including large diameter pipelines, tunnels, pump stations, treatment plants, dams and reservoirs. Several of the key WSIP projects will be presented. Mr. Wade will also discuss the need for continued long-term investment in the system to maintain the levels of service achieved by the WSIP.
Presenter: Kent Ferre
Author bio: Kent Ferre is Manager of the Geosciences Department at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) in San Francisco, CA. He manages PG&E’s Earthquake Risk Management Program for the gas, electric and corporate real estate business units. Mr. Ferre is the Project Manager for the Diablo Canyon Seismic Hazard Update project. Mr. Ferre has over 30 years experience at PG&E working as a Design Engineer, Project Engineer, and Project Manager in many departments including Substation Engineering, Gas Transmission, and Power Generation. Mr. Ferre has been in the Geosciences Department since 1997. He is a Registered Civil and Structural Engineer in California.
Abstract: The goal of the seismic risk management program at PG&E is to systematically reduce earthquake risks to an acceptable level, and to manage residual risks such that safety, damage control, and timely restoration of service are assured. The program is implemented by an interdisciplinary technical task force teams, reviewed by a steering committee consisting of department directors and vice presidents. All PG&E facilities except nuclear plants and dams (nuclear plants and hydro dams fall under the regulatory requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the California Division of Safety of Dams respectively) are evaluated using consistent criteria according to potential impact on safety and importance to PG&E and its customers, and according to earthquake exposure and vulnerability. Those facilities that have significant risk of unacceptable earthquake performance are further evaluated and prioritized for mitigative action. Independent inspection, peer review, and verification are carried out to assure the company that the desired levels of earthquake performance of facilities and their operational systems are being achieved.